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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2020
Volume 14 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-27

Online since Tuesday, February 25, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Statins role in vitiligo: A mini-review p. 1
Hayder M Al-Kuraishy, Nawar R Hussian, Marwa S Al-Naimi, Ali I Al-Gareeb
DOI:10.4103/TJD.TJD_38_19  
Vitiligo is a chronic acquired disease of pigmentation disorder. Melanocytes damage and hypopigmentation relate to the induction of oxidative and autoimmune disorders. Different previous studies illustrated the possible role of statins in the treatment of different types of vitiligo. Therefore, objective of this study was to elucidate the role of statins in the management of vitiligo. In general, an endeavor of this study article was to present a mini-review regarding the potential therapeutic effect of statins in the therapy of vitiligo. Results of the present study illustrated that statins inhibit the production of interferon gamma, expression of major histocompatibily complex, and T-cells activation in patients with active vitiligo. Statins have significant anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating activates in different modalities of vitiligo. Statins, have a potential effect against oxidative stress through the activation of anti-oxidant capacity and reduction of ROS in human melanocytes by upregulation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor in the melanocytes. Statins improve melanogenesis in melanocytes though increasing tyrosinase mRNA production and augment the stimulatory effect of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland on the melanocytes. Finally, statins therapy may produce significant inhibition of inflammatory reactions through the inhibition of chemokines. In conclusion, this study highlighted the potential role of statins in the treatment of vitiligo either systemic or localized through significant suppressions of oxidative stress, autoimmunity, and inflammatory reactions. Bidirectional effects of statins on oxidative and autoimmunity/inflammatory pathway making it as a novel therapy for vitiligo.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Parents' knowledge about sun exposure and a comparison of their personal practices versus those used to protect their children against the sun p. 8
Ezgi Ozkur, Tuǧba Falay Gür, Sevil Savaş Erdoǧan, Ilknur Kıvanç Altunay
DOI:10.4103/TJD.TJD_35_19  
Objectives: Overexposure to the sun during childhood is a well-known risk factor for skin cancer. Childhood is a crucial period for establishing and continuing to develop healthy sun protection behaviors. The purpose of our study was to investigate parents' knowledge and compare their personal behaviors in regard to sun protection for themselves and for their children. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study. A questionnaire was given to 738 parents, 700 of whom completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. Results: Among the 700 parents, 88% (n = 616) were female and 12% (n = 84) were male. The mean age of the parents and children was 35.1 ± 5.6 years and 5.2 ± 3.0 years, respectively. Eighty-three percent (n = 580) of the parents were aware of sun exposure during childhood as a risk factor for skin cancer, but approximately only 15% of the parents reported using sunscreen regularly for themselves and for their children. Fifty-two percent (n = 367) of the parents implied not using any protective clothing for their children. Conclusion: Our study showed that parents were aware of the risks of sun exposure and the need for sun protection for themselves and children, but protective practices were low overall. Parents should be included in educational interventions targeting sun protection behaviors toward themselves and their children.
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The effect of smoking on oral labial mucosa: A controlled dermoscopic study p. 14
Erhan Ayhan, Isa An, Murat Özt ürk, Esref Araç
DOI:10.4103/TJD.TJD_41_19  
Background/Aim: Although the effects of smoking on large blood vessels are known, research on the effects of smoking on microcirculation continues. In this study, we investigated whether the dermoscopic features of the labial mucosa of smokers differed from the healthy control group. Materials and Methods: In this study, 164 patients (82 smokers and 82 nonsmokers) aged between 20 and 75 years who were admitted to the dermatology department were included. Dermoscopically obtained data were analyzed. Results: Hemorrhagic dot (48.8% vs. 26.8%, P: 0.004), matchstick hairpin vessels (37.8% vs. 15.9%, P: 0.002), microaneursym (35.4% vs. 18.3%, P: 0.014), targetoid brown round areas (37.8% vs. 19.5%, P: 0.010), white dot (22% vs. 9.8%, P: 0.033), and hyperkeratosis (37.8% vs. 18.3%, P: 0.005) were found to be significant in terms of dermoscopic features.Conclusion: In this study, we think that structures such as hemorrhagic dot, matchstick hairpin vessels, microaneursym, which are found to be high in smokers, may be caused by microcirculation disorders.
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Tattoos: Why do we get? What is our attitude? p. 18
Melek Aslan Kayiran, Elif Özkul, Mehmet Salih Gürel
DOI:10.4103/TJD.TJD_46_19  
Background: The inclination to get tattoos has been increasing in our country. While its history depends on the ancient past, feelings and thoughts of tattooed people about tattoos, and their awareness on complications and removal methods has not been investigated completely. Aims: Our aim is to learn the approach of individuals on tattoos and getting tattoos. Settings and Design: We have planned a cross-sectional survey study for tattooed and non-tattooed people. Materials and Methods: Twenty four multiple-choice and one open ended question were prepared for people with tattoos, and seven questions were prepared for people who don't have tattoos. Four questions were common in both groups. Statistical Analysis Used: For statistical analyses, SPSS (IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp) was used. Statistical significance of the difference between common questions was determined with chi-square test, and the effect of different groups on answering the question was analyzed with Cramér's V test. p values below 0.05 were recognized as statistically significant. Results: About half of people with tattoos had their first tattoo when they were between ages 18-29, and 38.2% had a single tattoo. 16.7% of individuals got their first tattoo below age 18. Women often preferred their wrists and ankles for tattoos, while men preferred arms, neck, legs and trunk. While women preferred to get a tattoo about a loved one, men rather got tattoos to look cool. 37.7% of people who don't have tattoos said they did not get one since they might regret it later, 25.4% stated they did not get one since it did not comply with the rules of their religion. 20.2% did not like seeing tattoos in others. Conclusion: The rate of getting tattoos in minors is higher in our country compared to other countries. The majority of people who want their tattoos to be removed got tattooed when they were minors. There is a higher rate of men than women who want to get their tattoos removed. 4.2% of tattooed people regret their tattoos in the process of getting them. It was observed that tattooed people were not aware of the risk of disease transmission by getting tattooed.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Chronic tophaceous gout manifesting with bilateral diffuse pedal swelling: Cytology revisited with an update in its list of differentials p. 23
Krishnendu Mondal, Rupali Mandal
DOI:10.4103/TJD.TJD_39_19  
Gout, a disorder of purine metabolism, presents with acute or chronic arthritis and deposition of urate crystals in connective tissue and kidneys. Rarely, patients progress into chronic tophaceous gout (CTG). We emphasize on a 74-year-old male patient, who developed multiple gouty tophi over both his hands. In addition, both his feet were diffusely swollen. On detection of characteristic urate crystals from both his hands and feet lesions, the diagnosis of CTG was confirmed.
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A psoralen and ultraviolet A-aggravated dermatosis: Grover's disease p. 25
Emin Ozlu, Ayse Serap Karadag, Tugba Kevser Uzuncakmak, Seyma Ozkanli, Aysegul Erdem, Necmettin Akdeniz
DOI:10.4103/TJD.TJD_45_19  
Grover's disease (GD) is an acquired dermatosis called transient acantholytic dermatosis. The exact cause is unknown, but the factors blamed for the etiology include ultraviolet (UV), sweating, temperature rise, radiation, medications, and malignancies. Topical corticosteroids, topical retinoids, and topical calcipotriol are usually sufficient for treatment, and systemic retinoids, systemic steroids, phototherapy, and methotrexate are rarely used. The current report describes the case of GD in a female patient, which was aggravated by the psoralen and UVA phototherapy.
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